Production-induced properties in the interlocking of stator packs (EFB 07/121)

To reduce iron losses, the soft-magnetic rotor and stator cores of electric drives are often made up of thin, electrically insulated individual laminations. In addition to the properties of the semi-finished products and the sheet thickness, the mechanical and electromagnetic properties of the end product are particularly influenced by the process for joining the laminations. One manufacturing process that represents an economical alternative, especially for large quantities, is interlocking.

In the EFB project “Production-induced properties in the interlocking of stator packs”, a comprehensive examination of the influences of component design, tool and process parameters during stamp packing is to be carried out and a model for the mechanical properties (in particular the joint strength) is to be derived as a function of design parameters and process boundary conditions. The findings are to be recorded in the form of a recommendation for action. In addition, the basis for real-time monitoring of the joints by means of an AI-supported analysis of force-displacement curves is to be established.


Due to increasingly stringent requirements for technologies with regard to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the demand for energy-efficient electric motors is rising. In the transport sector, an acceleration of electrification is also supported by political initiatives, leading to an increasing amount of electrically powered vehicles among new car registrations. In order to compete technologically with fossil fuel driven vehicles, manufacturers are striving to increase ranges of electric drives while reducing the weight and installation space for the drive and energy storage systems. One step in this direction is to increase the efficiency and power density of electric motors, resulting in a reduction of overall weight.

The rotor and stator cores, which are usually made of soft-magnetic materials, i.e. materials with low coercivity and high magnetic permeability, offer particular potential for optimizing electric drives. Iron-silicon and cobalt-iron alloys, which are characterized by high saturation induction and magnetizability, are used for this purpose, which is important for achieving high torque densities.

The iron cores of rotors and stators are generally not solid but made of individual laminations which are electrically insulated from each another and are designed to be as thin as possible to reduce eddy current losses.

Various processes exist for joining the individual laminations into a laminated core. One of these is interlocking. Following the forming process (usually a shear cutting process), this is subdivided into the stamping and stacking process steps (see Fig. 1). The principal mechanism of interlocking is based on an interference fit. The bond strength is achieved by pressing the previously embossed spots into each other by applying axial force. Sheet thicknesses in the range of 0.30 mm to 0.35 mm (and in some cases even less) have been common practice for interlocking processes for both NO electrical steel and CoFe.

[1] Process steps of punch-packaging (left) and exemplary punch-packaged components (right)

The process is extremely complex due to a large number of manipulated variables (cutting clearance, stamping depth, counter punch force etc.) and disturbance variables (e.g. wear and semi-finished product fluctuations) as well as narrow tolerance ranges, so that the relationships between the process parameters and the resulting magneto-mechanical properties have not yet been sufficiently investigated. For this reason, the process design of interlocking is based primarily on experimental knowledge.


Currently, an insufficient data basis regarding the process limits in the interlocking of components for electrical energy converters restricts productivity. Consideration of manufacturing-induced properties in product and process design can lead to optimization of mechanical and magnetic properties. In addition, by monitoring process variables, real-time statements can be made about the condition of the interlocking spots, which enables resilient process control and thus an increase in quality and productivity. The following overriding objectives are derived from this for the research project:

  • Development of know-how with regard to the design of interlocking tools and the mechanically packaged connection (spot design)
  • Optimization of the process chain through possible elimination of heat treatment with precise knowledge of the stress state after the joining process, as well as through resilient process control based on monitoring of in-process variables
  • Optimization of electrical energy converters by considering manufacturing-induced properties in product design.

Therefore, two questions in particular are addressed:

1. How do manufacturing-induced properties during interlocking of rotor/stator laminations affect the magneto-mechanical properties of electrical components?

2. How can these properties be specifically influenced?


To answer these questions, a model-based description of the mechanical and magnetic properties of stamp-packaged components is necessary. The models to be developed in the proposed project for describing the magnetic and mechanical properties of stamped-packaged sheet packages based on finite element simulations will be validated using experimental data. To this end, standardized test ring packages will first be analyzed. With the aid of the validated FE models, parameter studies are then carried out using a real stator geometry. The findings obtained in this way are in turn validated with experiments.

[2] Mechanical process simulation of the packaging step (left) and simulation of the magnetic behavior of an interlocked ring-shaped component (right)

In this way, relationships can be derived between the joint strength, the process boundary conditions (tool setting, stroke speeds, material etc.) and the magnetic properties of the sheet packs (eddy current losses). As a central step, a model is to be developed for describing the mechanical joint strength of embossed spots during stacking. By recording force-displacement signals during the process in combination with AI-supported analysis, it will ultimately be possible to identify faulty process states and predict the quality of the joint. Machine learning approaches must first be used to transform the recorded time signals and derive characteristic features. Finally, regression models for predicting the joint strength are developed on the basis of these features.


The research work presented here takes place within the framework of IGF project no. N04434/21 of the European Research Association for Sheet Metal Working (EFB). This is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) via the Arbeitsgemeinschaft industrieller Forschungsvereinigungen (AiF) as part of the program for the promotion of Industrial Collective Research (IGF) due to a decision of the German Parliament.

Furthermore, we would like to thank all industrial partners who support this research project:

  • evopro systems engineering AG
  • Fritz Stepper GmbH & Co. KG
  • Hans Berg GmbH & Co KG
  • Nidec SYS GmbH
  • SCALE GmbH
  • Schuler Pressen GmbH
  • Simufact Engineering GmbH
  • Thomas GmbH
  • thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG
  • Vacuumschmelze GmbH & Co. KG
  • voestalpine Stahl GmbH
  • Zeller+Gmelin GmbH Co. KG
  • ZF Friedrichshafen AG